ITM Platform

Monday, May 16, 2016

Henry Ford and Design Thinking



Henry Ford pioneered many of the ideas that are now commonplace in business, including ideas used in Design Thinking. He has been quoted as saying "If you ask people what they want, it would be a faster horse." This hits on the design thinking principle of divergence. You need to understand what problem you are solving before coming up with a solution. Henry Ford wasn't solving a problem around horses, he was solving a transportation problem.

I was in a design thinking workshop and we did an exercise where first we were asked to draw a door bell. Then we were given a problem in a different framing, we were asked to draw a way to know if someone was at the door. The second set of drawings were much different. A doorbell would have worked, but by reframing the question, many other solutions came out.

Another Henry Ford quote is "you can have any color, as long as it's black." On the surface, this might not sound very customer friendly, However, this response was due to the solution to another problem. When he was developing the production line for the Model T, he was challenged in the painting step. He found all paint colors took to long to dry, except black. By only offering black, he was actually fixing a bottle knock in his process...applying the theory of constraints as it were.

Next time you're working on a solution to a problem, spend a few minutes and think about the framing of the question. Can you change the question in order to expand you possible solutions?

Thursday, March 31, 2016

What's Keeping me Busy


I thought I’d take the opportunity to share some of things that keep me busy when I’m not doing my day job.

Podcasts

Note to Self - I recently started listening to this one and find it very engaging. The topics are around how technology fits into our lives. I find Manoush Zomorodi entertaining and informative.

Design Matters - This one isn’t really about design as much as it’s about how people got to where they are. Debbie Millman has been doing this podcast for over 10 years and each episode is an interview with someone somehow related to design. Examples include folks like Seth Godin, Daniel Pink and people more on design like Ayse Birsel (keep reading) and Doug Powell.

Freakanomics - This has been a favorite of mine for a long time. It takes an interesting look at topics such as the economic impact of not getting enough sleep. While there is always a look at the data, the podcast is very entertaining, hosted by Stephen J. Dubner, one of the authors of the book of the same title.

Clockwise - I’ve listened to a lot of tech podcasts and given up on them because they are too long. My threshold for any podcast is less than an hour, preferably half of that. Clockwise fits the bill. The two hosts have two guests and each of the four brings up a questions but the whole podcast is time boxed to 30 minutes.

Books

Design the Life you Love by Ayse Birsel. Ayse was one of the guests on Design Matters, where I heard about her book. This is actually a workbook. It uses the principles of Design Thinking and applies them to your life, as the title might imply.

David and Goliath - I’ve had this one on my bookshelf since last Christmas and finally dug into it. I’ve enjoyed everything I’ve read from Malcolm Gladwell and though I’m not very far into it, so far so good.

Running - I am going to run the Chicago Marathon this fall as part of Team RMHC, raising money for the Ronald McDonald House Charity. My wife and I volunteer at our local Ronald McDonald house and I think this is a great charity. You can read more about that on my other blog (and even donate to the cause)

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Design the Poster

Anyone that's been around Agile for a while has probably heard of the Design the Box exercise. The idea is to help the team define and understand the product vision.

I'm getting near the end of a project. We've had some challenges in terms of making the right decisions on scope. This has manifested itself in completing user stories only to have the business team say "I know that's what I asked for, but I don't think it's right." We didn't do a Design the Box at the start of the project.

However, as they start implementing their organizational change management approach (this tool is going to a large set of users), they are developing some communications tools including a web portal and a set of posters. These posters are 2x3 feet, have a logo and the tool name on the top, and more information below. They are going to be posted around the buildings where the target end users work. As I looked at this it hit me, if we had created this poster at the start of the project, we may have avoided some of the challenges we encountered.

So next time you're starting a project, think about what the poster might say.

Friday, February 05, 2016

Are You Experimenting?

I came across another interesting idea in Change By Design. It was presented as Toyota's ideas around training and had 4 principles:

  • There is no substitute for direct observation
  • Proposed changes should always be structured as experiments
  • Workers and managers should experiment as frequently as possible 
  • Managers should coach, not fix


This idea of experimenting caught my attention. So often as I'm designing a solution for a customer, they want to try to get the perfect solution first time out of the box. When they don't know what perfect is, they struggle to make decisions. I can recall one client, after 3 weeks of developing a complex interface, others looked at it and we went through another 3 weeks revising it. This was all in development, the real end users didn't have a chance to try it out. No experimentation at all, just managers trying to guess what was needed. No direct observation.

This is just one example of something I see a lot of. Not being open to experimenting. Smart organizations are figuring it out though. The push for a DevOps approach and employing Microservices is a move in the right direction. With DevOps, we can deploy something and if it doesn't work, we can have a different solution out in weeks or maybe months, not quarters or years. With microservices, we get away from the monolithic applications and have a bunch of small, independent components. If one doesn't work quite right, the whole system doesn't fail.

So how open is your organization to experimenting? Are failures discouraged or recognized as the first step towards success? Are you trying to get everything perfect or do you recognize that everything is a prototype, even if it's in production?

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Divergence and Convergence

There's another idea from Tim Brown's Change by Design I thought was worth writing about. It's the idea of divergence and convergence.  Early in a design project (or any project), we want to collect lots of ideas. This is divergence...creating lots of possible choices. Linus Pauling, winner of 2 Nobel prizes, stated "To have a good idea, you must first have lots of ideas." If you're writing user stories, don't try to limit story creation. Just because a story is written doesn't mean it will be delivered but if it's never written it definitely won't be delivered.

Brown provides some ideas for generating ideas
  • Have an overarching purpose. I think of Design the Box when I hear this.
  • Involve the whole organization (or whole project team, sounds like agile again).
  • Don't discard ideas just based on who came up with them
  • Allow people room to experiment. This sounds like a spike to me. 


Now we get to convergence; making our choices. This is where we take a look at all our ideas and decide which ones to move forward with. It's grooming the backlog, prioritizing the stories, and throwing away the ones that don't fit our goal. Again, we should use our vision to help make these decisions. 


Brown points out the design is both art and science. The divergence is about being creative. The convergence is about using more analytical tools to make decisions. Also, don't think of this as a linear process...you may go back and forth between the two steps. For example, you just finished an iteration and are getting ready to plan the next one. You may have a divergent step and you synthesize the information generated in the iteration and demonstration but you need to quickly move to convergence to pick the user stories for the next iteration. 

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

Design Thinking and Constraints

I've been reading the book Change by Design by Tim Brown. It's part of my overall interest in design in general. I have found a number of interesting ideas in the book so far, and I'm not even half way through it. 

One concept had to do with constraints. Anyone that has worked much on projects know that constraints are a big part of it. He talks about three aspects of constraint; feasibility, desirability, and viability. 

Feasibility is looking at whether or not something can be done in the near future. 

Viability is looking at whether or not it's sustainable from a business model perspective. 

Finally, desirability of course is will it be something that people want. In design thinking you want to take into account all three of these aspects as you're working on a project.

As I think back to projects that I have had that have been either successful or not successful, I can see how all of these play into a project's success or failure. 

On an actual project, we can test for feasibility by doing something like a spike, a short test to prove out if the idea will work.

Viability may be a bit harder to show on a project. It will take other supporting input such as market research to prove the approach is a sustainable business model. This is probably best done before you go to far in the project.

I think there's a very strong tie between desirability and how agile projects work. It's that whole idea of working closely with your users to truly understand their needs. 

I've seen other ties between design thinking and the agile approach. I'll have more to say on the future blog post.

Tuesday, December 15, 2015

Design, Agile, and Gall's Law

The topic of design has been crossing my path lately. I see a lot of overlap with Agile principles. One of the principles I came across is called Gall’s law. It states that "all complex systems that work evolved from simpler systems that worked.” It was introduced by John Gall in his book Systematics in 1975.

This is very similar to the Agile principle of simplicity. It can be seen in the practice of Test Driven Development. You write your test case and only code until it passes the test and then you stop. No gold-plating here. 

This is also similar to the principle of MVP (minimal viable product)  that originated in the Lean Startup. The idea is to make a product as simple as possible, get it into your users hands, and see how it works. You make your improvements to the product based on the feedback from your users. 

Seems pretty logical, but my experience is that it isn’t followed as often as it should be. I see plenty of examples where scope creep takes over, and rather than getting the MVP out, features keep getting added - needed or not - while the users are left waiting. So next time there's a request for just one more feature, remind people of Gall's Law.